The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the 8051: Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and Standard chips are often available in DIP (dual in-line package) form, but the Extended 8051 models often have a different form factor, and are not "drop-in compatible". All these things are called 8051 because they can all be programmed using 8051 assembly language, and they all share certain features (although the different models all have their own special features).
Arduino is an open source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world. Theproject's products are distributed as open-source hardware and software, which are licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) or the GNU General Public License (GPL),  permitting the manufacture of Arduino boards and software distribution by anyone. Arduino boards are available commercially in preassembled form, or as do-it- yourself (DIY) kits.
Arduino board designs use a variety of microprocessors and controllers. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that may be interfaced to various expansion boards (shields) and other circuits. The boards feature serial communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models, which are also used for loading programs from personal computers. The microcontrollers are typically programmed using a dialect of features from the programming languages C and C++. In addition to using traditional compiler toolchains, the Arduino project provides an integrated development environment (IDE) based on the Processing language project.
The Arduino project started in 2003 as a program for students at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Ivrea, Italy,  aiming to provide a low-cost and easy way for novices and professionals to create devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators. Common examples of such devices intended for beginner hobbyists include simple robots, thermostats, and motion detectors.
A newer device is available. Please consider the PIC16F887. This powerful (200 nanosecond instruction execution) yet easy-to- program (only 35 single word instructions) CMOS FLASH-based 8-bit microcontroller packs Microchip's powerful PIC® architecture into an 40- or 44-pin package and is upwards compatible with the PIC16C5X, PIC12CXXX and PIC16C7Xdevices. PIC16F877 features 256 bytes of EEPROM data memory, self programming, an ICD, 8 channels of 10-bit Analog-to- Digital (A/D) converter, 2 additional timers, 2 capture/compare/PWM functions, the synchronous serial port can be configured as either 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI™) or the 2-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit (I²C™) bus and a Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART). All of these features make it ideal for more advanced level A/D applications in automotive, industrial, appliances and consumer applications.\
ARM, originally Acorn RISC Machine, later Advanced RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments. British company ARM Holdings develops the architecture and licenses it to other companies, who designtheir own products that implement one of those architectures—including systems- on-chips (SoC) and systems-on- modules (SoM) that incorporate memory, interfaces, radios, etc. It also designs cores that implement this instruction set and licenses these designs to a number of companies that incorporate those core designs into their own products.
Processors that have a RISC architecture typically require fewer transistors than those with a complex instruction set computing (CISC) architecture (such as the x86 processors found in most personal computers), which improves cost, powerconsumption, and heat dissipation. These characteristics are desirable for light, portable, battery-powered devices—including smartphones, laptops and tablet computers, and other embedded systems For supercomputers, which consume large amounts of electricity, ARM could also be a power-efficient solution.
ARM Holdings periodically releases updates to architectures and core designs. All of them support a 32-bit address space (only pre-ARMv3 chips, made before ARM Holdings was formed, as in original Acorn Archimedes, had smaller) and 32-bit arithmetic; instructions for ARM Holdings' cores have 32-bit fixed-length instructions, but later versions of the architecture also support a variable-length instruction set that provides both 32- and 16-bit instructions for improved code density. Some older cores can also provide hardware execution of Java bytecodes. The ARMv8-A architecture, announced in October 2011,  adds support for a 64- bit address space and 64-bit arithmetic with its new 32-bit fixed-length instruction set.
With over 100 billion ARM processors produced as of 2017, ARM is the most widely used instruction set architecture in terms of quantity produced.  Currently, the widely used Cortex cores, older "classic" cores, and specialized SecurCore cores variants are available for each of these to include or exclude optional capabilities.
A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedizedand adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.
They were first developed in the automobile industry to provide flexible, ruggedised and easily programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays, timers and sequencers. Since then they have been widely adopted as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments. A PLC is an example of a "hard" real-time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result.
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for high-level process supervisory management, but uses other peripheral devices such as programmable logic controllers and discrete PID controllers to interface to the process plant or machinery. The operator interfaces which enable monitoring and the issuing of process commands, such as controller set point changes, are handled through the SCADA supervisory computer system. However, the real-time control logic or controller calculations are performed by networked modules which connect to the field sensors and actuators.
The SCADA concept was developed as a universal means of remote access to a variety of local control modules, which could be from different manufacturers allowing access through standard automation protocols. In practice, large SCADA systems have grown to become very similar to distributed control systems in function, but using multiple means of interfacing with the plant. They can control large-scale processes that can include multiple sites, and work over large distances as well as small distance.  It is one of the most commonly-used types of industrial control systems, however there are concerns about SCADA systems being vulnerable to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment. A proprietary programming languagedeveloped by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python.
Although MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical computing, an optional toolbox uses the MuPAD symbolic engine, allowing access to symbolic computing abilities. An additional package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-domain simulation and model-based design for dynamic and embedded systems. As of 2017, MATLAB has roughly 1 million users across industry and academia.  MATLAB users come from various backgrounds of engineering, science, and economics.
C is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, including operating systems, as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems.
\C is an imperative procedural language. It was designed to be compiled using a relatively straightforward compiler, to provide low-level access to memory, to provide language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and to require minimal run-time support. Despite its low-level capabilities, the language was designed to encourage cross-platform programming. A standards-compliant and portably written C program can be compiled for a very wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with few changes to its source code. The language has become available on a very wide range of platforms, from embedded microcontrollers to supercomputers.
C++ is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object- oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low- level memory manipulation.
It was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource- constrained and large systems, with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design highlights.  C++ has also been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications,  including desktop applications, servers (e.g. e-commerce, web search or SQL servers), and performance-critical applications (e.g. telephone switches or space probes).  C++ is a compiled language, with implementations of it available on many platforms. Many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, Microsoft, Intel, and IBM.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large class library named Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for .NET Framework execute in a software environment (in contrast to a hardware environment) named Common Language Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. (As such, computer code written using .NET Framework is called "managed code".) FCL and CLR together constitute .NET Framework.
.NET Framework led to a family of .NET platforms targeting mobile computing, embedded devices, alternative operating systems, and web browser plug-ins. A reduced version of the framework, .NET Compact Framework, is available on Windows CE platforms, including Windows Mobile devices such as smartphones. .NET Micro Framework is targeted at very resource-constrained embedded devices. Silverlight was available as a web browser plugin. Mono is available for many operating systems and is customized into popular smartphone operating systems (Android and iOS) and game engines. .NET Core targets the Universal Windows Platform(UWP), and cross-platform and cloud computing workloads.
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE), formerly Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), is a set of specifications, extending Java SE  with specifications for enterprise features such as distributed computing and web services.  Java EE applications are run on reference runtimes, that can be microservices or application servers, which handle transactions, security, scalability, concurrency and management of the components it is deploying.
Java EE is defined by its specification. The specification defines APIs and their interactions. As with other Java Community Process specifications, providers must meet certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as Java EE compliant.
Examples of contexts in which Java EE referencing runtimes are used are: e- commerce, accounting, banking information system
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher- level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a public utility.
Third-party clouds enable organizations to focus on their core businesses instead of expending resources on computer infrastructure and maintenance.  Advocates note that cloud computing allows companies to avoid or minimize up-front IT infrastructure costs. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and that it enables IT teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable demand. Cloud providers typically use a "pay-as- you-go" model, which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud-pricing models.
Big data is data sets that are so voluminous and complex that traditional data processingapplication software are inadequate to deal with them. Big data challenges include capturing data, data storage, data analysis, search, sharing, transfer, visualization, querying, updating and information privacy. There are five dimensions to big data known as Volume, Variety, Velocity and the recently added Veracity and Value.
Lately, the term "big data" tends to refer to the use of predictive analytics, user behavior analytics, or certain other advanced data analytics methods that extract value from data, and seldom to a particular size of data set. "There is little doubt that the quantities of data now available are indeed large, but that’s not the most relevant characteristic of this new data ecosystem."  Analysis of data sets can find new correlations to "spot business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime and so on."  Scientists, business executives, practitioners of medicine, advertising and governmentsalike regularly meet difficulties with large data-sets in areas including Internet search, fintech, urban informatics, and business informatics. Scientists encounter limitations in e-Science work, including meteorology, genomics,  connectomics, complex physics simulations, biology and environmental research.
SAP ERP  is enterprise resource planning software developed by the German company SAP SE. SAP ERP incorporates the key business functions of an organization. The latest version (SAP ERP 6.0) was made available in 2006. The most recent Enhancement Package (EHP8) for SAP ERP 6.0 was released in 2016.
Business Processes included in SAP ERP are Operations (Sales & Distribution, Materials Management, Production Planning, Logistics Execution, and Quality Management), Financials (Financial Accounting, Management Accounting, Financial Supply Chain Management), Human Capital Management (Training, Payroll, e-Recruiting) and Corporate Services (Travel Management, Environment, Health and Safety, and Real-Estate Management).
Ansys, Inc. is a public company based in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. It develops and markets engineering simulation software. Ansys software is used to design products and semiconductors, as well as to create simulations that test a product's durability, temperature distribution, fluid movements, and electromagnetic properties.
In the 2000s, Ansys made numerous acquisitions of other engineering design companies, acquiring additional technology for fluid dynamics, electronics design, and other physics analysis.
AutoCAD is a computer-aided drafting software program used to create blueprints for buildings, bridges, and computer chips, among other things. Discover how AutoCAD is used by drafters and other professionals.
AutoCAD was first released in December 1982 as a desktop app running on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers. Before AutoCAD was introduced, most commercial CAD programs ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with each CAD operator (user) working at a separate graphics terminal.
AutoCAD is used across a wide range of industries, by architects, project managers, engineers, graphic designers, and many other professionals
ProE is a multi-programs software that can be used for design, analysis and manufacturing. In this portion of the course we will be dealing with the first capability of ProE which deals with the model creation and assembly of designs.\
CATIA an acronym of computer aided three-dimensional interactive application,It is a multi-platform software suite for computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), computer-aided engineering (CAE), PLM and 3D, developed by the French company Dassault Systèmes.
CATIA started as an in-house development in 1977 by French aircraft manufacturer Avions Marcel Dassault, at that time customer of the CADAM software  to develop Dassault's Mirage fighter jet. It was later adopted by the aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, and other industries.
SolidWorks is a solid modeling computer-aided design (CAD) and computer- aided engineering (CAE) computer program that runs on Microsoft Windows. SolidWorks is published by Dassault Systèmes.
PLC A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.
They were first developed in the automobile industry to provide flexible, ruggedised and easily programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays, timers and sequencers. Since then they have been widely adopted as high- reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments. A PLC is an example of a "hard" real-time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result